• 2015年全国成考高起点《英语》语法归纳和练习

    时间:2017-01-10 20:26来源:赢在路上 作者:自考 点击:

    2015年全国成考高起点《英语》语法归纳和练习,2015年全国成考高起点《英语》语法归纳和练习一、最高级形式应注意的问题:1)最高级比较范围用介词in, over, of

    2015年全国成考高起点《英语》

    语法归纳和练习

    一、最高级形式应注意的问题:

    1)最高级比较范围用介词in, over, of, among.

    in, (all) over用于在某一范围内的比较,如:in China, all over the world.

    of, among用于在同一群体内同类事物的比较,如:among the teachers, of the four dresses.

    注意:among?相当于one of ?,不说among all?。这一点考生应与汉语表达区别开来

    如:

    all visible lights, red light has the longest and violet the shortest wavelength.

    [A] Among [B] Of [C]For [D]To 答案为[B]

    2)比较级形式表示最高级意义时,比较对象的范围应用:

    any other +单数名词

    the other +复数名词

    the others

    anyone/anything else

    上述词是用业将比较级结构转变成最高级意义的关键词语,切不可遗漏,尤其是other,否则会造成逻辑混乱的错误。如不能说:John runs faster than anyone.注意与汉语表达的不同。

    3)most可以用来修饰形容词或副词,意思相当于very,用法区分单复数,但不能用定冠词the,如:a most interesting book, most expensive restaurants, 要注意与 “the +形容词最高级+of + 名词”的结构表示的最高级的区别,如:

    He spoke in the warmest of voices

    They have been most kind to me

    Basketball is the most popular of sports in this country.

    Chinese is the most difficult of language

    Chinese is a most difficult language

    二、不用比较级和最高级的形容词:

    1)表示颜色的有:white, black

    2)表示形态的有:round, square, oval, circular, triangular(三角形),level

    3)表示性质和特征的有:atomic, economic, scientific, sonic, golden, silvery, woolen, earthen, silent, full, empty, sure, dead, deaf, blind, lame, rainy

    4)表示状态作表语的有:afraid, asleep, alive, ashamed, alone, aware, alike

    5)表示时间、空间和方位的有:daily, weekly, monthly, annual, present, front, back, forward, backward, east, west, south, north, left, right, final

    6)表示极限、主次、等级的有:maximum, minimum, utmost, main, major, chief minor, superior, inferior, senior, junior, super, favorite

    7)含有绝对概念的有:absolute, entire, whole, total, perfect, excellent, thorough, complete.

    三、平行结构与比较级

    平行结构很多情况下是由形容词或副词的比较级或者暗含比较意味的连词引导的。如:

    The ideal listener stays both inside and outside the music at the moment it is played and enjoys it almost as much as the composer at the moment he composes.

    大多数情况下平行结构都是具有一定的比较含义的,有的是递进对比not only?but (also) ;prefer?to?;rather than有的是同类对比:and ;but;or;both? and?;either?or?; neither?nor???

    平行结构测试时候注意以下几点:

    1.注意比较结构中相比较的内容在语法形式上是否相同。如:

    It is better to die one"s feet than .

    [A]living on one"s knees [B]live on one"s knees

    [C]on one"s knees [D]to live on one"s knees

    (答案为D)

    Despite the temporary difficulties, the manager prefers increasing the output to decreasing it.

    2.其他具有并列或比较意义的短语也可引导平行结构。

    1)rather than, let alone 虽不是并列连词,但在结构上连接两个语法形式相同的成分。如:

    We are taught that a business letter should be written in a formal style in a personal style.

    [A]rather than [B]other than [C]better than [D]less than

    答案为A

    For the new country to survive, for its people to enjoy prosperity, new economic policies will be required.

    [A] to name a few [B]let alone [C]not to speak [D]let"s say

    (答案为B)

    2)如果平行的两个成分在形式上是介词短语,而且介词相同,一般说来第二个介词不要省略。如:

    At times, more care goes into the composition of newspaper and magazine advertisements than into the writing of the features and editorials.

    四、代词及其指代一致

    (一)代词的指代

    1.that的指代作用

    that指代不可数名词和单数可数名词(如是复数,用those),后面通常跟有修饰语,如出现在比较结构中的that of.如

    Conversation calls for a willingness to alternate the role of speaker with that of listener, and it calls for occasional “digestive pauses” by both.这里that指代前面的the role.

    No bread eaten by men is so sweet as that earned by his own labor.

    2.one的指代作用

    one指代带不定冠词的单数可数名词,复数为ones.the one指代带定冠词的单数可数名词。如:

    A good writer is who can express the commonplace in an uncommon way.

    [A] that [B]he [C]one [D]this

    答案为[C]

    3.do的替代作用。

    do代替动词,注意数和时态的变化。如:

    For him to be re-elected, what is essential is not that his policy works , but that the public believe that it does.

    (二)代词指代一致问题

    代词指代一致是指指代的名词在性、数、格上是否一致,或者所照应的名词词组在某些方面保持一致。

    Each cigarette a person smokes does some harm, and eventually he may get a serious disease form its effect.

    这里he指代前面的person.

    It was during the 1920"s that the friendship between the two American writers Hemingway and Fitzgerald reached its highest point.

    这里its指代前面的两人的friendship.

    Our department was monitored by two supervisors, Bill and me.

    这里me必须用宾格形式。

    代词指代一致必须注意以下几个原则和规律:

    1.邻近和靠近原则

    由either ? or, neither?nor, not only?but (also)连接先行词时候,如果两个先行词在数和性上保持一致,就用其相应的一直的人称代词;如果两个先行词在数或性上不一致,人称代词一般与邻近的先行词在数和性上保持一致。

    Neither Mary nor Alice has her key with her.

    Neither the package nor the letters have reached their destination

    If either David or Janet comes , he or she will want a drink

    (责任编辑:zlc)

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